Using the data from 1974/75 to 2017/18, this paper intended to find out the relationship between money supply, income and price level in Nepal. The paper has established the relationship between real money supply (both M1 and M2) with respect to real GDP, nominal money supply (both M1 and M2) with respect to price level and nominal GDP with respect to price level separately. The econometric tools such as ADF for unit root tests, SIC for lag length selection, bivariate Johansen Cointegration tests followed by VECM has been used for long-run causality. Further, VEC as well as VAR Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Wald tests for short-run causality are used. The paper found bidirectional longrun causality between the real income with respect to both type of money supply in real terms. But there is no evidence of short run causation between these variables. Likewise, the study found the unidirectional long-run relationship runs from narrow money supply to consumer price. However, there is no short-run relationship from either side. Accordingly, there is no evidence of long-run as well as short-run relationship between broad money supply and consumer price level. Lastly, there is no evidence of long-run causality between nominal GDP and general price level. But the study found unidirectional short-run causality running from general price to nominal GDP. The results suggest that Nepal should focus on growth of time deposit component of broad money supply in long-run for economic growth and control of inflation.
This paper investigates asymmetric oil price pass through on inflation in Nepal using time series data of 331 months from April 1987 to February 2018. The paper applies Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) model to estimate long run and short run asymmetric adjustment of refined petroleum products on Consumer Price Index (CPI). Finding shows presence of long run asymmetric adjustment between price of all petroleum products and CPI. However, when the model is controlled for monetary impact and price level of India, only the price of diesel is found to have long run asymmetric pass through into inflation. The long run cointegrating equation shows unit rise in price of diesel is accompanied by small contraction in CPI in long run by -0.048 units. Meanwhile unit fall in price of diesel is shown to have positive long run pass through in CPI by 0.431 units. This apparent anomaly could be attributed to fact that with rise in price of diesel, demand for cheaper adulterant like kerosene increases thus resulting in fall in CPI Similarly, fall in unit price of diesel could have overall increased industrial demand and other resources which in turn led to significant increase in CPI. Meanwhile, study didn’t find any significant asymmetry in short run between CPI and petroleum products. However, in short run a significant impact on the CPI by actual size of increased price of Petrol and Diesel has been found. Hence, in short run, it shows that it is the size of price increase in Petrol and Diesel; not the price itself that has significant effect on the CPI. Since petroleum products in Nepal are not priced by market, these findings can provide guidelines for future oil pricing in reducing the spillover impact on general price level.
This study examines the dynamic relationship among the stock market and macroeconomic factors such as nominal domestic variables (inflation, money supply, and interest rate), real economic activity (gross domestic product) and foreign variable (exchange rate and foreign direct investment) of Nepal. It has used Johansen and Juselius (1990) method of multivariate cointegration for the period Mid-July 1994 to Mid-July 2015. The finding of this study shows that the stock prices are positively and significantly related to money supply. Real economic activity and interest rate have insignificant and negative relationship with the stock prices. Similarly, foreign direct investment, inflation (CPI) and exchange rate with US dollar have a positive and insignificant relationship with the Nepalese stock market. Accordingly, the VEC estimates suggest that there is no significant effect of macroeconomic variables to the Nepalese stock price in the short run. In general, the presence of cointegration and causality suggest that Nepalese stock market is not efficient in both the short run and the long run.
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